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    近来有鉴于各国因工业及生活需要,大量使用原油,导致二氧化碳增加引起温室效应。国际上成立专门组织,170余国家在日本京都通国‘京都协议’,通过将全球二氧化碳设个上限,按目前各国的排放需求分配给各国的企业。并且将其市场化,即每个企业甚至个人都有排放配额,并且可以自由买卖,通过这种方式,想在全球范围内,限制排碳量的增长。而碳信用,也称碳权,便是一种排碳的计量标准,一个碳信用相当于一吨二氧化碳。而所谓的个人碳权,即将整个国家的定额进行平均分配,即每个人‘有权’的可排量,现在也进入市场了。请看本站编辑摘自《中国证券报》的报道

 

    首张低碳信用卡面世碳减排进入个人买单时代

 

    2010128,北京环境交易所联合兴业银行在北京推出国内首张低碳信用卡。兴业银行信用卡中心总经理严学旺表示,这标志着聚集高端群体的中国信用卡市场正式开启绿色消费。

 

    北京产权交易所董事长熊焰表示,低碳信用卡开启了个人规模化购买碳减排量的先河,推动以全民参与方式从日常消费出发践行低碳理念,进而促进中国低碳经济转型。

 

    低碳信用卡的推出意味着碳排放量的购买主体除了企业之外,还吸收了个人。据介绍,这张低碳信用卡除具有信用卡的基本功能外,还携手北京环境交易所搭建了信用卡碳减排量个人购买平台,持卡人可根据个人每年预计产生的碳排放量,购买相应的碳减排量,实现个人碳中和。

 

    所谓碳中和,是指企业、团体或个人通过购买碳信用的形式,资助符合国际规定的节能减排项目,以消除企业、团体或个人的碳足迹,从而达到环保的目的。据统计,目前,中国人均碳排放量约为每年5.7吨二氧化碳当量。

 

    严学旺表示,个人在成功申办中国低碳信用卡后,即自愿承诺卡片激活后的首年购买定额的碳减排量,其中金卡为2,普卡为1,测算后碳减排量每吨约为35元人民币,购买费用从信用卡账户中扣减,额外购买可另行申请。此外,兴业银行还设置了“低碳乐活”购碳基金:客户持中国低碳信用卡每刷卡消费1,即可捐赠1分钱至该基金账户,于每年422日世界地球日集中购买碳减排量,使持卡人的每一笔刷卡消费,都产生减排效应。

 

    北京环境交易所总经理助理毕建忠介绍说,持卡人所购买的碳排放量都是按照现有国际标准开发的减排项目,是已经产生的减排量,所募集的资金都将支付给项目业主,例如目前已有的项目包括分布在新疆、四川等偏远地区的沼气发电等环保项目。

 

    北京环境交易所将全程为中国低碳信用卡的减碳提供全方位支持,并将定期公布由该卡产生的碳减排交易情况,确保实现碳减排量的“可测量、可报告、可核查”。

 

    尽管低碳信用卡将信用卡植入“低碳”概念,给消费者带来新鲜感,然而我国的信用卡市场目前的竞争日趋激烈,低碳信用卡能否短时间内获得良好的市场回报尚待观望。对此,严学旺坦诚表示,从商业角度来看,此次推出低碳信用卡还是有一定风险的,未来一年内究竟有多少发卡量也很难说,因为公民的低碳意识还需要一个培育过程。

 

    据了解,目前欧美发达国家也有类似的发放信用卡鼓励个人购买碳排放量的做法,但还不是很普遍,而在整个碳交易中,个人购买二氧化碳的比重也很低,主要还是企业购买。

 

Wider criticism of the carbon scheme is growing. Kevin Smith from Carbon Trade Watch says, ‘The carbon market is riddled with projects like GFL. It’s not like this project is the bad apple – the whole barrel is rotten. Time and again we’re seeing evidence of gross injustices being carried out – people being evicted to make way for dams and waste incinerators being built in residential areas. Carbon trading has been the subject of a very slick PR campaign portraying it as the answer to climate change, so investigations such as this are very important.’

 

One of the main problems is the lack of accountability. The companies receiving carbon credits are subject to international auditing. But in many cases auditors don’t make on-site visits, and the companies receiving credits pay the auditing firms a fee for their service, which is largely based on information the company itself provides.

 

Conservative MP Tim Yeo is Chairman of the House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, which in 2007 produced a report describing the UN’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as ‘significantly flawed’. He said our findings showed the importance of effective checks on companies involved in the scheme.

 

Because of the sums of money involved and the way the CDM works, it needs very rigorous policing,’ he says. ‘There may well be cases where that’s not happened. Individual schemes are scattered all over the world, sometimes in inaccessible places. The degree of transparency and scrutiny often falls short of what is necessary.’

 

Pandya shows me a file of newspaper cuttings advertising public consultations – a requirement by companies in the scheme. But most of the notices don’t have a time or address, meaning the public can’t turn up. The published announcement, however, is often enough for the auditor to tick that box.

 

GFL’s auditor’s concern is only with greenhouse gases. They never visited the surrounding villages. They didn’t talk to Vijay or Radha. They didn’t assess whether there were other pollution problems, because under the scheme that’s not taken into account.

 

Dr Alison Doig, senior climate-change advisor at Christian Aid, says, ‘Live’s investigation highlights exactly what’s wrong with this flawed system, which is focused only on exchanging carbon credit globally, with no accounting for other environmental or social damage. All carbon credits are doing is making some companies rich, while doing nothing to prevent global pollution. It needs either abolition or total reform.’

 

Back in the UK, we tell Patrick Birley at the European Climate Exchange what we found in India.

 

The carbon-credits system is in place to reduce carbon emissions, not to save bunnies or solve all the world’s problems,’ he says.

 

Is this system perfect? No. Are some companies bending the rules? Probably. Is that fair? No. But without big industry on board, saving the planet is going nowhere. At least this is a start.’

 

THE GREAT CARBON CREDITS MERRY-GO-ROUND

 

Enlarge In theory the carbon-credit trading scheme is a thoroughly modern and intelligent approach to reducing world pollution. The graphic above explains the system – in a nutshell, rich First World companies are financially encouraged to help poorer Third World companies clean up their manufacturing processes. They do this by accepting ‘carbon caps’, or limits, which if exceeded can be replenished by purchasing carbon credits – via specialist traders – from manufacturers in the developing world.

 

In practice, however, there are loopholes that seriously threaten the schemes’ credibility. The most significant are these: they take into account only greenhouse gases, money made through trading credits can be used to expand a business so increasing pollution and, perhaps most questionably, auditors of the scheme are paid for by the companies.

 

Carbon credits have become such a profitable commodity that market speculators – hedge funds, banks and pension funds – have enthusiastically bought into them. Traders buy and sell credits issued by both the UN and EU schemes. For trading purposes, one allowance or Certified Emission Reduction

 

(CER) is equivalent to one ton of CO2 emissions.

 

These credits can be sold privately or on the international market. Louis Redshaw, head of environmental markets at Barclays Capital predicts that ‘carbon will be the world’s biggest commodity market – and it could become the world’s biggest market overall.’

 

But that was before the recession. A global fall-off in manufacturing means that companies are producing far less carbon. In recent months, companies in this position have dumped their credits on the market. This has not only provided heavily polluting firms with funds to plug gaps in their balance sheets but has also pushed down prices. Carbon has now dropped to such a level it’s cheaper to burn polluting fossil fuels and buy up credits than find ways of reducing emissions.

 

 

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